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Technical: A Brief History of Payment Channels: from Satoshi to Lightning Network

Who cares about political tweets from some random country's president when payment channels are a much more interesting and are actually capable of carrying value?
So let's have a short history of various payment channel techs!

Generation 0: Satoshi's Broken nSequence Channels

Because Satoshi's Vision included payment channels, except his implementation sucked so hard we had to go fix it and added RBF as a by-product.
Originally, the plan for nSequence was that mempools would replace any transaction spending certain inputs with another transaction spending the same inputs, but only if the nSequence field of the replacement was larger.
Since 0xFFFFFFFF was the highest value that nSequence could get, this would mark a transaction as "final" and not replaceable on the mempool anymore.
In fact, this "nSequence channel" I will describe is the reason why we have this weird rule about nLockTime and nSequence. nLockTime actually only works if nSequence is not 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. final. If nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF then nLockTime is ignored, because this if the "final" version of the transaction.
So what you'd do would be something like this:
  1. You go to a bar and promise the bartender to pay by the time the bar closes. Because this is the Bitcoin universe, time is measured in blockheight, so the closing time of the bar is indicated as some future blockheight.
  2. For your first drink, you'd make a transaction paying to the bartender for that drink, paying from some coins you have. The transaction has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, and a starting nSequence of 0. You hand over the transaction and the bartender hands you your drink.
  3. For your succeeding drink, you'd remake the same transaction, adding the payment for that drink to the transaction output that goes to the bartender (so that output keeps getting larger, by the amount of payment), and having an nSequence that is one higher than the previous one.
  4. Eventually you have to stop drinking. It comes down to one of two possibilities:
    • You drink until the bar closes. Since it is now the nLockTime indicated in the transaction, the bartender is able to broadcast the latest transaction and tells the bouncers to kick you out of the bar.
    • You wisely consider the state of your liver. So you re-sign the last transaction with a "final" nSequence of 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. the maximum possible value it can have. This allows the bartender to get his or her funds immediately (nLockTime is ignored if nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF), so he or she tells the bouncers to let you out of the bar.
Now that of course is a payment channel. Individual payments (purchases of alcohol, so I guess buying coffee is not in scope for payment channels). Closing is done by creating a "final" transaction that is the sum of the individual payments. Sure there's no routing and channels are unidirectional and channels have a maximum lifetime but give Satoshi a break, he was also busy inventing Bitcoin at the time.
Now if you noticed I called this kind of payment channel "broken". This is because the mempool rules are not consensus rules, and cannot be validated (nothing about the mempool can be validated onchain: I sigh every time somebody proposes "let's make block size dependent on mempool size", mempool state cannot be validated by onchain data). Fullnodes can't see all of the transactions you signed, and then validate that the final one with the maximum nSequence is the one that actually is used onchain. So you can do the below:
  1. Become friends with Jihan Wu, because he owns >51% of the mining hashrate (he totally reorged Bitcoin to reverse the Binance hack right?).
  2. Slip Jihan Wu some of the more interesting drinks you're ordering as an incentive to cooperate with you. So say you end up ordering 100 drinks, you split it with Jihan Wu and give him 50 of the drinks.
  3. When the bar closes, Jihan Wu quickly calls his mining rig and tells them to mine the version of your transaction with nSequence 0. You know, that first one where you pay for only one drink.
  4. Because fullnodes cannot validate nSequence, they'll accept even the nSequence=0 version and confirm it, immutably adding you paying for a single alcoholic drink to the blockchain.
  5. The bartender, pissed at being cheated, takes out a shotgun from under the bar and shoots at you and Jihan Wu.
  6. Jihan Wu uses his mystical chi powers (actually the combined exhaust from all of his mining rigs) to slow down the shotgun pellets, making them hit you as softly as petals drifting in the wind.
  7. The bartender mutters some words, clothes ripping apart as he or she (hard to believe it could be a she but hey) turns into a bear, ready to maul you for cheating him or her of the payment for all the 100 drinks you ordered from him or her.
  8. Steely-eyed, you stand in front of the bartender-turned-bear, daring him to touch you. You've watched Revenant, you know Leonardo di Caprio could survive a bear mauling, and if some posh actor can survive that, you know you can too. You make a pose. "Drunken troll logic attack!"
  9. I think I got sidetracked here.
Lessons learned?

Spilman Channels

Incentive-compatible time-limited unidirectional channel; or, Satoshi's Vision, Fixed (if transaction malleability hadn't been a problem, that is).
Now, we know the bartender will turn into a bear and maul you if you try to cheat the payment channel, and now that we've revealed you're good friends with Jihan Wu, the bartender will no longer accept a payment channel scheme that lets one you cooperate with a miner to cheat the bartender.
Fortunately, Jeremy Spilman proposed a better way that would not let you cheat the bartender.
First, you and the bartender perform this ritual:
  1. You get some funds and create a transaction that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig between you and the bartender. You don't broadcast this yet: you just sign it and get its txid.
  2. You create another transaction that spends the above transaction. This transaction (the "backoff") has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, plus one block. You sign it and give this backoff transaction (but not the above transaction) to the bartender.
  3. The bartender signs the backoff and gives it back to you. It is now valid since it's spending a 2-of-2 of you and the bartender, and both of you have signed the backoff transaction.
  4. Now you broadcast the first transaction onchain. You and the bartender wait for it to be deeply confirmed, then you can start ordering.
The above is probably vaguely familiar to LN users. It's the funding process of payment channels! The first transaction, the one that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig, is the funding transaction that backs the payment channel funds.
So now you start ordering in this way:
  1. For your first drink, you create a transaction spending the funding transaction output and sending the price of the drink to the bartender, with the rest returning to you.
  2. You sign the transaction and pass it to the bartender, who serves your first drink.
  3. For your succeeding drinks, you recreate the same transaction, adding the price of the new drink to the sum that goes to the bartender and reducing the money returned to you. You sign the transaction and give it to the bartender, who serves you your next drink.
  4. At the end:
    • If the bar closing time is reached, the bartender signs the latest transaction, completing the needed 2-of-2 signatures and broadcasting this to the Bitcoin network. Since the backoff transaction is the closing time + 1, it can't get used at closing time.
    • If you decide you want to leave early because your liver is crying, you just tell the bartender to go ahead and close the channel (which the bartender can do at any time by just signing and broadcasting the latest transaction: the bartender won't do that because he or she is hoping you'll stay and drink more).
    • If you ended up just hanging around the bar and never ordering, then at closing time + 1 you broadcast the backoff transaction and get your funds back in full.
Now, even if you pass 50 drinks to Jihan Wu, you can't give him the first transaction (the one which pays for only one drink) and ask him to mine it: it's spending a 2-of-2 and the copy you have only contains your own signature. You need the bartender's signature to make it valid, but he or she sure as hell isn't going to cooperate in something that would lose him or her money, so a signature from the bartender validating old state where he or she gets paid less isn't going to happen.
So, problem solved, right? Right? Okay, let's try it. So you get your funds, put them in a funding tx, get the backoff tx, confirm the funding tx...
Once the funding transaction confirms deeply, the bartender laughs uproariously. He or she summons the bouncers, who surround you menacingly.
"I'm refusing service to you," the bartender says.
"Fine," you say. "I was leaving anyway;" You smirk. "I'll get back my money with the backoff transaction, and posting about your poor service on reddit so you get negative karma, so there!"
"Not so fast," the bartender says. His or her voice chills your bones. It looks like your exploitation of the Satoshi nSequence payment channel is still fresh in his or her mind. "Look at the txid of the funding transaction that got confirmed."
"What about it?" you ask nonchalantly, as you flip open your desktop computer and open a reputable blockchain explorer.
What you see shocks you.
"What the --- the txid is different! You--- you changed my signature?? But how? I put the only copy of my private key in a sealed envelope in a cast-iron box inside a safe buried in the Gobi desert protected by a clan of nomads who have dedicated their lives and their childrens' lives to keeping my private key safe in perpetuity!"
"Didn't you know?" the bartender asks. "The components of the signature are just very large numbers. The sign of one of the signature components can be changed, from positive to negative, or negative to positive, and the signature will remain valid. Anyone can do that, even if they don't know the private key. But because Bitcoin includes the signatures in the transaction when it's generating the txid, this little change also changes the txid." He or she chuckles. "They say they'll fix it by separating the signatures from the transaction body. They're saying that these kinds of signature malleability won't affect transaction ids anymore after they do this, but I bet I can get my good friend Jihan Wu to delay this 'SepSig' plan for a good while yet. Friendly guy, this Jihan Wu, it turns out all I had to do was slip him 51 drinks and he was willing to mine a tx with the signature signs flipped." His or her grin widens. "I'm afraid your backoff transaction won't work anymore, since it spends a txid that is not existent and will never be confirmed. So here's the deal. You pay me 99% of the funds in the funding transaction, in exchange for me signing the transaction that spends with the txid that you see onchain. Refuse, and you lose 100% of the funds and every other HODLer, including me, benefits from the reduction in coin supply. Accept, and you get to keep 1%. I lose nothing if you refuse, so I won't care if you do, but consider the difference of getting zilch vs. getting 1% of your funds." His or her eyes glow. "GENUFLECT RIGHT NOW."
Lesson learned?

CLTV-protected Spilman Channels

Using CLTV for the backoff branch.
This variation is simply Spilman channels, but with the backoff transaction replaced with a backoff branch in the SCRIPT you pay to. It only became possible after OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY (CLTV) was enabled in 2015.
Now as we saw in the Spilman Channels discussion, transaction malleability means that any pre-signed offchain transaction can easily be invalidated by flipping the sign of the signature of the funding transaction while the funding transaction is not yet confirmed.
This can be avoided by simply putting any special requirements into an explicit branch of the Bitcoin SCRIPT. Now, the backoff branch is supposed to create a maximum lifetime for the payment channel, and prior to the introduction of OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY this could only be done by having a pre-signed nLockTime transaction.
With CLTV, however, we can now make the branches explicit in the SCRIPT that the funding transaction pays to.
Instead of paying to a 2-of-2 in order to set up the funding transaction, you pay to a SCRIPT which is basically "2-of-2, OR this singlesig after a specified lock time".
With this, there is no backoff transaction that is pre-signed and which refers to a specific txid. Instead, you can create the backoff transaction later, using whatever txid the funding transaction ends up being confirmed under. Since the funding transaction is immutable once confirmed, it is no longer possible to change the txid afterwards.

Todd Micropayment Networks

The old hub-spoke model (that isn't how LN today actually works).
One of the more direct predecessors of the Lightning Network was the hub-spoke model discussed by Peter Todd. In this model, instead of payers directly having channels to payees, payers and payees connect to a central hub server. This allows any payer to pay any payee, using the same channel for every payee on the hub. Similarly, this allows any payee to receive from any payer, using the same channel.
Remember from the above Spilman example? When you open a channel to the bartender, you have to wait around for the funding tx to confirm. This will take an hour at best. Now consider that you have to make channels for everyone you want to pay to. That's not very scalable.
So the Todd hub-spoke model has a central "clearing house" that transport money from payers to payees. The "Moonbeam" project takes this model. Of course, this reveals to the hub who the payer and payee are, and thus the hub can potentially censor transactions. Generally, though, it was considered that a hub would more efficiently censor by just not maintaining a channel with the payer or payee that it wants to censor (since the money it owned in the channel would just be locked uselessly if the hub won't process payments to/from the censored user).
In any case, the ability of the central hub to monitor payments means that it can surveill the payer and payee, and then sell this private transactional data to third parties. This loss of privacy would be intolerable today.
Peter Todd also proposed that there might be multiple hubs that could transport funds to each other on behalf of their users, providing somewhat better privacy.
Another point of note is that at the time such networks were proposed, only unidirectional (Spilman) channels were available. Thus, while one could be a payer, or payee, you would have to use separate channels for your income versus for your spending. Worse, if you wanted to transfer money from your income channel to your spending channel, you had to close both and reshuffle the money between them, both onchain activities.

Poon-Dryja Lightning Network

Bidirectional two-participant channels.
The Poon-Dryja channel mechanism has two important properties:
Both the original Satoshi and the two Spilman variants are unidirectional: there is a payer and a payee, and if the payee wants to do a refund, or wants to pay for a different service or product the payer is providing, then they can't use the same unidirectional channel.
The Poon-Dryjam mechanism allows channels, however, to be bidirectional instead: you are not a payer or a payee on the channel, you can receive or send at any time as long as both you and the channel counterparty are online.
Further, unlike either of the Spilman variants, there is no time limit for the lifetime of a channel. Instead, you can keep the channel open for as long as you want.
Both properties, together, form a very powerful scaling property that I believe most people have not appreciated. With unidirectional channels, as mentioned before, if you both earn and spend over the same network of payment channels, you would have separate channels for earning and spending. You would then need to perform onchain operations to "reverse" the directions of your channels periodically. Secondly, since Spilman channels have a fixed lifetime, even if you never used either channel, you would have to periodically "refresh" it by closing it and reopening.
With bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels, you may instead open some channels when you first begin managing your own money, then close them only after your lawyers have executed your last will and testament on how the money in your channels get divided up to your heirs: that's just two onchain transactions in your entire lifetime. That is the potentially very powerful scaling property that bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels allow.
I won't discuss the transaction structure needed for Poon-Dryja bidirectional channels --- it's complicated and you can easily get explanations with cute graphics elsewhere.
There is a weakness of Poon-Dryja that people tend to gloss over (because it was fixed very well by RustyReddit):
Another thing I want to emphasize is that while the Lightning Network paper and many of the earlier presentations developed from the old Peter Todd hub-and-spoke model, the modern Lightning Network takes the logical conclusion of removing a strict separation between "hubs" and "spokes". Any node on the Lightning Network can very well work as a hub for any other node. Thus, while you might operate as "mostly a payer", "mostly a forwarding node", "mostly a payee", you still end up being at least partially a forwarding node ("hub") on the network, at least part of the time. This greatly reduces the problems of privacy inherent in having only a few hub nodes: forwarding nodes cannot get significantly useful data from the payments passing through them, because the distance between the payer and the payee can be so large that it would be likely that the ultimate payer and the ultimate payee could be anyone on the Lightning Network.
Lessons learned?

Future

After LN, there's also the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels (DMC). This post is long enough as-is, LOL. But for now, it uses a novel "decrementing nSequence channel", using the new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence (not the broken one originally by Satoshi). It actually uses multiple such "decrementing nSequence" constructs, terminating in a pair of Spilman channels, one in both directions (thus "duplex"). Maybe I'll discuss it some other time.
The realization that channel constructions could actually hold more channel constructions inside them (the way the Decker-Wattenhofer puts a pair of Spilman channels inside a series of "decrementing nSequence channels") lead to the further thought behind Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer channel factories. Basically, you could host multiple two-participant channel constructs inside a larger multiparticipant "channel" construct (i.e. host multiple channels inside a factory).
Further, we have the Decker-Russell-Osuntokun or "eltoo" construction. I'd argue that this is "nSequence done right". I'll write more about this later, because this post is long enough.
Lessons learned?
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Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20190929(Market index 33 — Fear state)

Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20190929(Market index 33 — Fear state)

https://preview.redd.it/z7ijiijzwip31.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fd3428d6a44862d55a57b64c681548e6a7e18a35

Venezuelan Central Bank Accused Of Laundering Bitcoin Obtained With Seized Mining Rigs Venezuela’s central bank is being accused of laundering BTC and ether obtained from seized mining rigs. Recently, Purse.io’s head of support Eduardo Gomez took to Twitter to shed light on the illegal practice. Gomez said the Venezuelan government has been illegally seizing mining rigs to obtain Bitcoin and Ethereum. However, the government is caught in a situation with no clear outlet to unload the coins. Gomez continued, explaining that the central bank will be used to launder the funds.
The Congress Of The Republic Of Peru Shows Interest In Blockchain Technology On Sept. 23, Congressman Francesco Petrozzi, president of the Science, Innovation and Technology Commission in Peru, spoke with Marco Esparza Montejo, the COO of Blockchain Life Solutions, about the potential of blockchain technology and the fourth industrial revolution applied in everyday reality. Esparza proposed the creation of an equivalent Blockchain Supervision at the Congress that would trace bad practices, propose funds to develop initiatives, put them in value and produce associated regulatory frameworks, among other things. He also proposed introducing digital training at schools, which includes not only learning to program but also seeing how it impacts on life.
Central Bank Of Brazil Wants To Use Blockchain Technology Starting In 2020 On Sept 24, Cointelegraph Brasil reported that the central bank of Brazil has decided to move away from its current payment system (Ted and Doc), which it considers slow and expensive. The new blockchain-based instant payment system should be launched by November 2020. The central bank hopes to connect more than 120 regulator-registered financial institutions and assure the availability of funds to the final beneficiary in real time, 24/7.
JPMorgan Says ICE Debuts; Positions’ Shakeout Likely Tanked Bitcoin Bitcoin’s 20% drop earlier this week was likely fueled by the effect of Intercontinental Exchange Inc.’s new futures contracts and an unwinding of long positions, according to JPMorgan Chase & Co. Though the strategists led by Nikolaos Panigirtzoglou were quick to point out that the introduction of physically delivered futures was a further step to maturity for the market, they said it probably depressed prices. Numerous crypto-market watchers have cited lower-than-expected volumes for the ICE futures contract as a likely contributor to this week’s drop. Other suggestions included concern about difficulty getting U.S. approval for Bitcoin-related exchange-traded funds and pressure around technical levels.

Encrypted project calendar(September 29, 2019)

GAME/GameCredits: GameCredits (GAME) is expected to perform hard forks on September 29th at block height 2519999

Encrypted project calendar(September 30, 2019)

INS/Insolar: Insolar (INS) will be on September 30th ERD/Elrond: Elrond (ERD) will conduct main network test on September 30th NULS/NULS: The NULS team will plan to beta the ChainBOX in the third quarter. CS/Credits: Credits (CS) will exchange tokens and bug rewards in the third quarter QTUM/Qtum: Quantum Chain (QTUM) is expected to complete lightning network beta in the third quarter XEM/NEM: New World Bank (XEM) will release mobile wallet and computer wallet in the third quarter HC/HyperCash: hypercash (HC) will complete community management agreement in the third quarter

Encrypted project calendar(October 01, 2019)

HT/Huobi Token: The financial base public link jointly created by Firecoin and Nervos is expected to be open source in October. RVN/Ravencoin: Ravencoin (RVN) Ravencoin will perform a hard fork on October 1. SHND/StrongHands: StrongHands (SHND) SHND 1000: The 1st currency exchange event will be held on October 1. ADA/Cardano: Cardano (ADA) plans to hold technical consensus meeting in Amsterdam on October 1st XRC/Bitcoin Rhodium: Bitcoin Rhodium (XRC) will record account balance awards on October 1st PPC/Peercoin: Peercoin (PPC) will perform Peercoin v0.8 (code tang lang) hard fork on October 1st

Encrypted project calendar(October 02, 2019)

BNB/Binance Coin: The 2019 DELTA Summit will be held in Malta from October 2nd to 4th. The DELTA Summit is Malta’s official blockchain and digital innovation campaign. BTC/Bitcoin: The B.Tokyo 2019 conference will be held in Tokyo from October 2nd to 3rd. CAPP/Cappasity: The Cappasity (CAPP) London Science and Technology Festival will be held from October 2nd to 3rd, when the Cappasity project will be attended by the Science and Technology Festival.

Encrypted project calendar(October 03, 2019)

ETC/Ethereum Classic: The 2019 Ether Classic (ETC) Summit will be held in Vancouver on October 3–4 ANT/Aragon: Aragon (ANT) is the AGP for the new mandatory community review period, with a deadline of October 3.

Encrypted project calendar(October 04, 2019)

KNC/Kyber Network: Kyber Network (KNC) will update the maxGasPrice parameter in the Kyber Network contract from 100 gwei to 50 gwei within 2 weeks after October 4.

Encrypted project calendar(October 05, 2019)

Ontology (ONT): Ony Ji will attend the blockchain event in Japan on October 5th and explain the practical application based on the ontology network.

Encrypted project calendar(October 06, 2019)

SPND/ Spendcoin: Spendcoin (SPND) will be online on October 6th

Encrypted project calendar(October 07, 2019)

GNO/Gnosis: Gnosis (GNO) will discuss the topic “Decentralized Trading Agreement Based on Ethereum” will be held in Osaka, Japan on October 7th. Kyber and Uniswap, Gnosis and Loopring will attend and give speeches.

Encrypted project calendar(October 08, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: The 2nd Global Digital Mining Summit will be held in Frankfurt, Germany from October 8th to 10th.

Encrypted project calendar(October 09, 2019)

CENNZ/Centrality: Centrality (CENNZ) will meet in InsurTechNZ Connect — Insurance and Blockchain on October 9th in Auckland.

Encrypted project calendar(October 10, 2019)

INB/Insight Chain: The Insight Chain (INB) INB public blockchain main network will be launched on October 10. VET/Vechain: VeChain (VET) will attend the BLOCKWALKS Blockchain Europe Conference on October 10. CAPP/Cappasity: Cappasity (CAPP) Cappasity will be present at the Osaka Global Innovation Forum in Osaka (October 10–11).

Encrypted project calendar(October 11, 2019)

OKB/OKB: OKB (OKB) OKEx series of talks will be held in Istanbul on October 11th to discuss “the rise of the Turkish blockchain.”

Encrypted project calendar(October 12, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: The 2019 Global Mining Leaders Summit will be held in Chengdu, China from October 12th to 14th.

Encrypted project calendar(October 14, 2019)

BCH/Bitcoin Cash: The ChainPoint 19 conference will be held in Armenia from October 14th to 15th.

Encrypted project calendar(October 15, 2019)

RUFF/RUFF Token: Ruff will end the three-month early bird program on October 15th KAT/Kambria: Kambria (KAT) exchanges ERC20 KAT for a 10% bonus on BEP2 KAT-7BB, and the token exchange reward will end on October 15. BTC/Bitcoin: The Blockchain Technology Investment Summit (CIS) will be held in Los Angeles from October 15th to 16th.

Encrypted project calendar(October 16, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: The 2019 Blockchain Life Summit will be held in Moscow, Russia from October 16th to 17th. MIOTA/IOTA: IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on the theme of “Technology Problem Solving and Testing IoT Devices” at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on October 16. ETH/Ethereum: Ethereum launches Istanbul (Istanbul) main network upgrade, this main network upgrade involves 6 code upgrades. QTUM/Qtum: Qtum (QTUM) Qtum main network hard fork is scheduled for October 16.

Encrypted project calendar(October 18, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: The SEC will give a pass on the VanEck/SolidX ETF on October 18th and make a final decision HB/HeartBout: HeartBout (HB) will officially release the Android version of the HeartBout app on October 18.

The BTC continued to shake yesterday and is still hovering around $8,200. In the past 24 hours, the net inflows of BTC funds exceeded $30 million, and the market inflows increased slightly. BTC tried again in the early morning to test the resistance of $8,400, but failed. Now it has withdrawn to the vicinity of $8,200. Looking at the 4-hour line, the rebound of BTC can weaken gradually. In the short term, it is difficult to have enough strength to break through upwards, and there may be further callbacks. The lower support level focuses on the $8,000 threshold first, and when it breaks through the support, it needs to be aware of the vicinity of $7,500. Operational aspects, back to $8400 can consider the deployment of an appropriate amount of empty orders, the spot side is not blindly operated for the time being, the heavier proposal to reduce the warehouse to less than 50% waiting for more suitable access opportunities.
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My Analysis/predictions of a bunch of Cryptos

I have been in crypto technically for 2+ years but, since last spring gotten very into it. Here is my opinion on a bunch of coins. I know I don't know everything about crypto, but I also know nobody (except maybe Satoshi) can say for sure how this will play out. Here's my analysis(half-assed bullshit guesses). Yea I'm very bullish.
BTC The king. I think it has the best likelihood of mass adoption. Wales want to see liquidity before they jump in. But more importantly they want to see big marketcap. They don't want to be a huge % of a market and not be able to pull out if it drops. I think there will be a tipping point in the near future where all of a sudden major financial companies start to pour in investments and millionares/billionares dump tons of money in. Wales are what takes us to 50-100k per coin. Also at a critical mass of marketcap the stigma of "betting on bitcoin" will turn to "putting it in bitcoin". Still too early to call a winner, but once they dive in it might be too late for other coins to top it. The tech that is massively adopted is not always the best. Yea there are fees, but it is still better than a wire transfer.
Jan 1 2018: 12050 April 1 2018: 16800
ETH Very strong. Accurately valued imo. I think it might go down a bit in the next year or so to 280 and stay, but I also think it will only take a few very successful Dapps for it to explode. Good leader too. I think the move to POS is great and I think the people behind it are very dedicated and pumped.
Jan 1 2018: 310 April 1 2018: 750
LTC- solid coin. Stability and a good leader. It could become the silver to the gold. I see it continuing to be very high volume.
Jan 1 2018: 72 April 1 2018: 105
BCC- No idea.
XRP- maybe great for a short term gain but I see major problems for it long term. I know a lot of people here don't like it because they think it's centralized but that's not why I don't like it. To me the problem is that for the "product" they offer to banks they can easily face competition and lose. There are already other coins that do similar things.
Jan 1 2018: .23 April 1 2018: .40
NEM Cool idea. I really like their coin and PoI. I think this coin has a chance of being massively adopted. The only problem is that they don't market much and don't get hype going. If they saw another big 20% burst I think they would snowball and more people would look up what they were about. They have small volume which isn't good, but I think it is because those who are in it see it as the best tech.
Jan 1 2018: .25 April 1 2018: .85
NEO Another coin that could be massively adopted. I don't see it going down too much anytime soon. After all the China FUD it only took a small hit and is still in the top 10. If China endorses it or has some kind of statement that can be interpreted as pro NEO I think it will explode. I like their model and how gas works with the POS. You can't go wrong with this one.
Jan 1 2018: 42 April 1 2018: 115
**DASH- PIVX is better in EVERY way.
IOTA- I think many can agree that this is the biggest question mark. I think it is the riskiest coin, but also potentially could see the most incredible gains. If the ball starts rolling with this and if they every get to the point where they can remove the coordinator I think it's lights out. GG. The question imo is can they get to that point while still being relevant and while people still believe in them. They have to get many people using the coin before they can get to that point.
Jan 1 2018: .62 April 1 2018: 1.8
XMR (monero) Awesome coin. Honestly I think this the safest bet. It has one of the most passionate communities and a good visible leader who understands his role is replaceable. The fungibility factor is SOOOOOO under valued and I wish more coins took this part more seriously. I like that there is no rich list. This coin seems to 2x all the time. The community has the "ask not what Monero can do for you but what you can do for Monero vibe"
Jan 1 2018: 195 April 1 2018: 405
QTUM, OMG, CARDANO all seem solid, but I haven't looked into them enough.
Bitconneeeeeeeeeeeect Not feelin it.
Jan 1 2018: 380 April 1 2018: .380
LISK- I think Lisk is awesome and will pop up to 12 by spring. JS is one of the most popular languages and its users are growing. At the end of the day it's the developer that makes widespread adoption. The easier it is for them to make apps for the block chain, the faster people can adopt it. DPOS imo is pretty cool. The people behind it seem really motivated and imo they have a cool logo and easy to remember name.
Jan 1 2018: 8.14 April 1 2018: 14.01
ARK I'm not gonna pretend to understand how smart bridges work, but I think they will go up. Their team seems professional and passionate and I like DPOS.
Jan 1 2018: 3.01 April 1 2018: 7.22
ZCASH Better off with XMR or PIVX. The tweet their boss gave was pretty telling. I have a bad vibe about them.
Stellar lumens IDK. Seems a lot like ripple
Jan 1 2018: .09 April 1 2018: .112
Stratis Better off with LISK or NEM imo
Jan 1 2018: 6.11 April 1 2018: 7.18
EOS I don't really understand this coin yet
MonaCoin Japan's coin. I think NEM is better because I like their POI and the fact they have been around longer. I don't think a coin can win off just strong patriotism/nationalism unless it is directly/officially endorsed by their gov't or issued (doubt that will happen)
Jan 1 2018: 4.42 April 1 2018: 6.44
PIVX Great coin. Their dev team sets targets and hits them. ZEROCOIN + super fast transactions are hard to beat. One of the most ideal coins with a community that's very passionate.
Jan 1 2018: 4.12 April 1 2018: 10.87
Decred One of the best long term coins. They have a good team and one of the smartest roadmaps. If crypto ever gets to maximal adoption you are basically talking about universal self governance and decred has a lot of foresight with their voting system. The down sides are that it's kinda complex and a lot to read though. New comers to crypto already have enough on their plate.
Jan 1 2018: 39.55 April 1 2018: 58.86
Steem Cool idea. I don't think its going away. At the same time I wouldn't buy this unless you like using the platform
Jan 1 2018: 1.02 April 1 2018: 3.31
Augur /Gnosis cool ideas. I see more competition coming for them. The draft kings and predictit markets are already huge. it's just a matter of showing the base how to use the platform
Jan 1 2018: 21.05 April 1 2018: 38.07 Jan 1 2018: 75.33 April 1 2018: 80.60
Binance I think this will pop up. Binance already has some of the lowest fees and BNB is functional already.
Jan 1 2018: 4.22 April 1 2018: 8.64
*Vertcoin/Grostle * I think people think because it's asic resistant it's more decentralized, but I think that's only is true in early stages. If it catches on people will figure how to rig many GPUs together and mine that way. I think they will be pumped and dumped again. I think they are the new DGB VTC: Jan 1 2018: 8.94 April 1 2018: 10.20
Populous/tenx Haven't looked into it enough but have heard good things
Salt I think Salt is a great. I think they might face more competition later, but if they can be stable and reliable, people will use their services and the price will keep going up.
Jan 1 2018: 5.44 April 1 2018: 10.91
Golem Big gamble. One coin that has tremendous upside(10x) but could also fade into obscurity. It faces a lot of competition but it seems like given it's niche function it has a strong following. The Devs for this I think are good. This is a very ambitious project. Who knows maybe 1 day a super AI will run on it.
Jan 1 2018: .34 April 1 2018: .81
Factom/Civic Great ideas. I really hope one of them becomes widely accepted/adopted. FCT
Jan 1 2018: 22.47 April 1 2018: 10.87
BAT Another great idea. I hope it does well. I like trying out new browsers
Sia/Storage I think these could moon but you will have to wait a while. I like Sia a bit better.
Sia > 1 dollar 2019
ZEN/VERG/ZCOIN Great on privacy. I'm not as big on POW and I think MONERO might have too much of a head start but these coins are unique. It's still early for any of them to become top dog
Byteballs cool Idea. I like IOTA better. Raiblocks might be better than both. but they are small and not on many exchanges. And as you can tell from the quality of this post I am too lazy to sign up for some new exchange right now.
Why so Bullish? You already know Where should ppl put money? Banks... almost no interest. If they raise interest rates they could crash the market. Either way $ will be printed in mass. Bonds..... terrible rates give me a break Stocks..... Market will probably go up but could crash any time. Not as liquid as crypto (I can't buy a computer with stock on robinhood). The whole point of stocks used to be owning a part of a company and having a say. That part of the value of a stock is long gone and diluted with these mega corps and everyone just hopes for capital gains. We all know where to go for gains. gold/silver... maybe. Crypto... Sky is the limit. It will soak up all the money that people hide, new money from the young kids in tech sectors, old money who want to pass crypos to their kids, and any sector that see's the benefit of it.
Best of luck to everyone out there.
submitted by AnotherAceTeeHummR34 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin and other Cryptocurrencies

What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is a form of digital currency, created and held electronically. No one controls it. Bitcoins aren’t printed, like dollars or euros – they’re produced by people, and increasingly businesses, running computers all around the world, using software that solves mathematical problems.
It’s the first example of a growing category of money known as cryptocurrency. It was created in 2009 by a software developer called Satoshi Nakamoto. The idea was to produce a currency independent of any central authority, transferable electronically, more or less instantly, with very low transaction fees.
This is a video that explains it better: Bitcoin
Why are a lot of people talking about it?
Bitcoin's price skyrocketed in 2017. From around $1,000 per Bitcoin, it is now $11,000. Alternative coins (or altcoins), like Ethereum and Litecoin, went up by as much 1000% this year as well. I have a lot of friends who became millionaires because of Bitcoin just this year.
How do I buy Bitcoin?
  1. Download the coins.ph app from the app store. If you find this guide useful, you can use my referral code. here If you finish the level 2 verification, we'll both get 50 pesos.
  2. From there, you can load money to your account thru 7-11 outlets or thru banks. You can convert the Peso you deposited into Bitcoin in your account. Note that the price of Bitcoin fluctuates throughout the day, so it is best to convert when the price of Bitcoin is low. If you want to withdraw your money from the app, you can do so via Banks, GCash, etc.
There are also similar apps, like Abra, or physical stores like Moneybees, but I have no experience using them. I believe you can buy Ethereum in Abra and Moneybees.
How do I earn money?
You can keep your Bitcoin in your coins.ph account, HOLD, and wait for the price of Bitcoin to go up. There was this person who posted here in reddit about a few weeks ago that he earned 50k from an initial investment of 35k. I started a few months ago and earned double my initial investment.
If you want to trade, you can transfer your bitcoin from your coins.ph account, to exchanges like Bittrex, Binance, or Poloniex. There are other exchanges, but these are the ones I'm familiar with. Once you've transferred your Bitcoin there, you can buy other coins. Trading is very risky and I do not recommend it if you do not have prior experience. You can lose a lot of money overnight or even in a few minutes.
https://poloniex.com https://www.binance.com https://www.bittrex.com https://www.coinbase.com
Stocks, or Bitcoin?
The returns if you invest in Bitcoin are huge, potentially. The coins are limited in number, it is becoming harder and harder to mine, and with more people becoming aware of Bitcoin and wanting to invest in it, it will drive the price up. Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies can go up by 10%, 20% or even 100% or higher overnight. However, you can lose just as much. The prices are very volatile that one good or bad news can affect its price by a lot.
Also, people argue that Bitcoin has no intrinsic value. For stocks, the value is determined by the performance of the company, its assets, earnings, etc. Bitcoin doesn't have that. The price is determined by the demand for it. The banks hate Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies for good measure and have been calling it a "bubble".
I'd still say that diversifying your investment is still the best way to go.
Bitcoin's price is too high. What can I do?
You don't have to buy 1 bitcoin for 550,000 pesos. You can buy .5, .05, or even .001 Bitcoin. You can also buy other cryptocurrencies. The top cryptocurrencies after Bitcoin are: Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Ripple, IOTA, Dash, Litecoin, Bitcoin Gold, NEO, etc.
If you want to own other coins, transfer your Btc to an exchange, and you can buy the other coins there.
You can track your monies by downloading the Blockfolio app. Trust me, there's no better feeling than waking up in the morning to see that you've earned a lot of money while sleeping.
You can check them by going to https://coinmarketcap.com.
What is Mining?
Imagine depositing money in a bank. The bank's database stores the information that you deposited the money and how much you have. In Bitcoin, People are sending bitcoins to each other over the bitcoin network all the time, but unless someone keeps a record of all these transactions, no-one would be able to keep track of who had paid what. The bitcoin network deals with this by collecting all of the transactions made during a set period into a list, called a block. It’s the miners’ job to confirm those transactions, and write them into a general ledger. They are rewarded with the transaction fees and coins.
I personally don't mine, but from what I've gathered, a "mining rig" costs between 100k-180k pesos depending on the number of video cards. The average ROI is around 4-6 months.
submitted by JSmooveGG to phinvest [link] [comments]

[uncensored-r/CryptoCurrency] My Analysis/predictions of a bunch of Cryptos

The following post by AnotherAceTeeHummR34 is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been openly removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
np.reddit.com/ CryptoCurrency/comments/7bziin
The original post's content was as follows:
I have been in crypto technically for 2+ years but, since last spring gotten very into it. Here is my opinion on a bunch of coins. I know I don't know everything about crypto, but I also know nobody (except maybe Satoshi) can say for sure how this will play out. Here's my analysis(half-assed bullshit guesses). Yea I'm very bullish.
BTC The king. I think it has the best likelihood of mass adoption. Wales want to see liquidity before they jump in. But more importantly they want to see big marketcap. They don't want to be a huge % of a market and not be able to pull out if it drops. I think there will be a tipping point in the near future where all of a sudden major financial companies start to pour in investments and millionares/billionares dump tons of money in. Wales are what takes us to 50-100k per coin. Also at a critical mass of marketcap the stigma of "betting on bitcoin" will turn to "putting it in bitcoin". Still too early to call a winner, but once they dive in it might be too late for other coins to top it. The tech that is massively adopted is not always the best. Yea there are fees, but it is still better than a wire transfer.
Jan 1 2018: 12050 April 1 2018: 16800
ETH Very strong. Accurately valued imo. I think it might go down a bit in the next year or so to 280 and stay, but I also think it will only take a few very successful Dapps for it to explode. Good leader too. I think the move to POS is great and I think the people behind it are very dedicated and pumped.
Jan 1 2018: 310 April 1 2018: 750
LTC- solid coin. Stability and a good leader. It could become the silver to the gold. I see it continuing to be very high volume.
Jan 1 2018: 72 April 1 2018: 105
BCC- No idea.
XRP- maybe great for a short term gain but I see major problems for it long term. I know a lot of people here don't like it because they think it's centralized but that's not why I don't like it. To me the problem is that for the "product" they offer to banks they can easily face competition and lose. There are already other coins that do similar things.
Jan 1 2018: .23 April 1 2018: .40
NEM Cool idea. I really like their coin and PoI. I think this coin has a chance of being massively adopted. The only problem is that they don't market much and don't get hype going. If they saw another big 20% burst I think they would snowball and more people would look up what they were about. They have small volume which isn't good, but I think it is because those who are in it see it as the best tech.
Jan 1 2018: .25 April 1 2018: .85
NEO Another coin that could be massively adopted. I don't see it going down too much anytime soon. After all the China FUD it only took a small hit and is still in the top 10. If China endorses it or has some kind of statement that can be interpreted as pro NEO I think it will explode. I like their model and how gas works with the POS. You can't go wrong with this one.
Jan 1 2018: 42 April 1 2018: 115
DASH- PIVX is better in EVERY way.
IOTA- I think many can agree that this is the biggest question mark. I think it is the riskiest coin, but also potentially could see the most incredible gains. If the ball starts rolling with this and if they every get to the point where they can remove the coordinator I think it's lights out. GG. The question imo is can they get to that point while still being relevant and while people still believe in them. They have to get many people using the coin before they can get to that point.
Jan 1 2018: .62 April 1 2018: 1.8
XMR (monero) Awesome coin. Honestly I think this the safest bet. It has one of the most passionate communities and a good visible leader who understands his role is replaceable. The fungibility factor is SOOOOOO under valued and I wish more coins took this part more seriously. I like that there is no rich list. This coin seems to 2x all the time. The community has the "ask not what Monero can do for you but what you can do for Monero vibe"
Jan 1 2018: 195 April 1 2018: 405
QTUM, OMG, CARDANO all seem solid, but I haven't looked into them enough.
Bitconneeeeeeeeeeeect Not feelin it.
Jan 1 2018: 380 April 1 2018: .380
LISK- I think Lisk is awesome and will pop up to 12 by spring. JS is one of the most popular languages and its users are growing. At the end of the day it's the developer that makes widespread adoption. The easier it is for them to make apps for the block chain, the faster people can adopt it. DPOS imo is pretty cool. The people behind it seem really motivated and imo they have a cool logo and easy to remember name.
Jan 1 2018: 8.14 April 1 2018: 14.01
ARK I'm not gonna pretend to understand how smart bridges work, but I think they will go up. Their team seems professional and passionate and I like DPOS.
Jan 1 2018: 3.01 April 1 2018: 7.22
ZCASH Better off with XMR or PIVX. The tweet their boss gave was pretty telling. I have a bad vibe about them.
Stellar lumens IDK. Seems a lot like ripple
Jan 1 2018: .09 April 1 2018: .112
Stratis Better off with LISK or NEM imo
Jan 1 2018: 6.11 April 1 2018: 7.18
EOS I don't really understand this coin yet
MonaCoin Japan's coin. I think NEM is better because I like their POI and the fact they have been around longer. I don't think a coin can win off just strong patriotism/nationalism unless it is directly/officially endorsed by their gov't or issued (doubt that will happen)
Jan 1 2018: 4.42 April 1 2018: 6.44
PIVX Great coin. Their dev team sets targets and hits them. ZEROCOIN + super fast transactions are hard to beat. One of the most ideal coins with a community that's very passionate.
Jan 1 2018: 4.12 April 1 2018: 10.87
Decred One of the best long term coins. They have a good team and one of the smartest roadmaps. If crypto ever gets to maximal adoption you are basically talking about universal self governance and decred has a lot of foresight with their voting system. The down sides are that it's kinda complex and a lot to read though. New comers to crypto already have enough on their plate.
Jan 1 2018: 39.55 April 1 2018: 58.86
Steem Cool idea. I don't think its going away. At the same time I wouldn't buy this unless you like using the platform
Jan 1 2018: 1.02 April 1 2018: 3.31
Augur /Gnosis cool ideas. I see more competition coming for them. The draft kings and predictit markets are already huge. it's just a matter of showing the base how to use the platform
Jan 1 2018: 21.05 April 1 2018: 38.07 Jan 1 2018: 75.33 April 1 2018: 80.60
Binance I think this will pop up. Binance already has some of the lowest fees and BNB is functional already.
Jan 1 2018: 4.22 April 1 2018: 8.64
Vertcoin/Grostle I think people think because it's asic resistant it's more decentralized, but I think that's only is true in early stages. If it catches on people will figure how to rig many GPUs together and mine that way. I think they will be pumped and dumped again. I think they are the new DGB VTC: Jan 1 2018: 8.94 April 1 2018: 10.20
Populous/tenx Haven't looked into it enough but have heard good things
Salt I think Salt is a great. I think they might face more competition later, but if they can be stable and reliable, people will use their services and the price will keep going up.
Jan 1 2018: 5.44 April 1 2018: 10.91
Golem Big gamble. One coin that has tremendous upside(10x) but could also fade into obscurity. It faces a lot of competition but it seems like given it's niche function it has a strong following. The Devs for this I think are good. This is a very ambitious project. Who knows maybe 1 day a super AI will run on it.
Jan 1 2018: .34 April 1 2018: .81
Factom/Civic Great ideas. I really hope one of them becomes widely accepted/adopted. FCT
Jan 1 2018: 22.47 April 1 2018: 10.87
BAT Another great idea. I hope it does well. I like trying out new browsers
Sia/Storage I think these could moon but you will have to wait a while. I like Sia a bit better.
Sia > 1 dollar 2019
ZEN/VERG/ZCOIN Great on privacy. I'm not as big on POW and I think MONERO might have too much of a head start but these coins are unique. It's still early for any of them to become top dog
Byteballs cool Idea. I like IOTA better. Raiblocks might be better than both. but they are small and not on many exchanges. And as you can tell from the quality of this post I am too lazy to sign up for some new exchange right now.
Why so Bullish? You already know Where should ppl put money? Banks... almost no interest. If they raise interest rates they could crash the market. Either way $ will be printed in mass. Bonds..... terrible rates give me a break Stocks..... Market will probably go up but could crash any time. Not as liquid as crypto (I can't buy a computer with stock on robinhood). The whole point of stocks used to be owning a part of a company and having a say. That part of the value of a stock is long gone and dilluted with these mega corps and everyone just hopes for capital gains. We all know where to go for gains. gold/silver... maybe. Crypto... Sky is the limit. It will soak up all the money that people hide, new money from the young kids in tech sectors, old money who ...
submitted by censorship_notifier to noncensored_bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Ethereum Raven Beam -GPU Mining Rigs Update -Settings Hashrates Pools Profit July 29-2019 Binance BUYS CoinMarketCap... Bitcoin mining in Thailand - mining Cryptocurrency - building a mining rig Binance Launches Crypto Mining Pool Amid Centralization Concerns Buying a $800 Pre-built Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Mining Rig ... Bitcoin mining rig budget build up 2019 CRYPTO MINER COMPUTER CONSTRUCTION Will Bitcoin mining in 2020 be a BAD IDEA? Is Bitcoin halving simply HYPE? Simple Mining flashdrive setup Pre-Built Crypto Mining Rigs: Why You Should Build, Not Buy Mining Rig Cleaning - Very Important  Cryptocurrency Market Crashing

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Bitcoin Ethereum Raven Beam -GPU Mining Rigs Update -Settings Hashrates Pools Profit July 29-2019

#gou-mining #ethereum #bitcoin Update on the GPU Mining rigs. Hashrates, Setting Overclocks. 15 GPUs include GTX 1050, 1060, 1070, 1080 AMD 470, 570, 580 Min... BX(The Thai baht to Crypto Exchange) is not Trading starting from October 2019 - I recommend this alternative SATANG PRO: for buying crypto in Thailand --- h... Should you buy a pre-built btc cryptocurrency mining rig? The answer depends, lets review the Coinmine One and discuss the status of gpu mining in 2019 and t... https://www.binance.com/?ref=11330706 www.hashslingers.com Links to the components for my builds: 80/20 Inc 10 series T-slot aluminum http://amzn.to/2CVANyg ... Binance Pool has received mixed responses from the crypto community, with some commentators expressing concerns that Binance's pool will result in a further centralization of Bitcoin ( BTC ) hash ... Bitcoin Mining CRYPTO MINER COMPUTER CONSTRUCTION Bitcoin Miner - 2019 Please Guys if you like this video hit like and comment below, I want to know your opinion about it. will upload soon ... Pre-configured cryptocurrency mining rigs continue to sell well. I explain why I believe you should build your mining rig and not simply buy one.# Referenced in Video: Pre-Built Mining Rigs are ... Send Your Mining Rig Pics in Discord to be featured in upcoming Community Mining Rigs Episodes/Live Streams! Buy GPU ... #Bitcoin #CoinMarketCap #Binance. Category Science & Technology; Show more ... Join Binance Exchange Here! https://www.binance.com/?ref=13795076 Join Kucoin Exchange Here! https://www.kucoin.com/#/?r=7chr68 Mine Bitcoin and other Crypto... Binance СЕО: Bitcoin price prediction & Givе Awaу BTC Binance Exchange 3,925 watching Live now Simplifying The Bitcoin Halving Here's What You Need To Know - Duration: 17:36.

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